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Factors Affecting The Quality Of Precision Parts Processed By CNC

Nowadays, mechanization and automation have become the mainstream of industry development. In the application process of the machine equipment composed of various parts, due to the lack of coordination or cooperation in some parts, it is easy to have problems. Raw material specifications, performance, material use, machine vibration, clamping pressure or loosening, elastic deformation process system, worker operation, detection methods, inspection personnel errors, etc., all have an impact on the quality of processed products. When we talk about the quality of working prototypes, it’s easy to think of five main factors:

1. Operator

As CNC machines became more and more sophisticated, the level of programming and operating personnel varied greatly. By combining human skills with computer information technology, we can make the most of machines. To this end, machine operators must be familiar with equipment performance. If the operator does not know enough about the performance of the equipment, it may be misoperated, which will accelerate the wear and tear of the machine parts and even cause damage to the machine.

As a result, this will require significant maintenance costs and long maintenance times. In order to restore the original accuracy of the equipment, the CNC machine operators must understand and master the machine manual and its operation precautions, so as to achieve civilized production and safe processing. It is necessary to strengthen the skill training of all processing and production personnel, rationally arrange the primary and secondary processing positions, and improve the quality awareness and work responsibility of personnel.

2. Machine

A complete CNC machining system consists of machine tools, workpieces, fixtures, and tools. Machining accuracy is related to the precision of the whole process system. The various errors of the processing system will be reflected as machining tolerances in different forms under different circumstances.

CNC machine precision is an important factor affecting the quality of prototype parts. When the machine accuracy is poor, some parts are damaged or the parts are not adjusted properly, the prototype will appear with various defects in the CNC machining process.

Therefore, we should not only choose the right turning Angle, the right cutting amount, and the CNC machining method, but also understand the impact of machine precision on CNC machining quality. Machine maintenance directly affects the machining quality and production efficiency of the prototype. All machines must be properly maintained in order to ensure accuracy and extend their working life. Usually, after 500 hours of operation, the machine needs to be maintained at the first level.

3. CNC processing method

There are many CNC machining methods, and cutting machining is one of the most common. In the process of cutting, the workpiece is subjected to the change of force and heat, and the physical and mechanical properties of metal materials will also be slightly hardened, so the choice of cutting tool plays an important role.

In general, the material of the tool should be selected according to the material of the workpiece being processed. Otherwise, the workpiece surface will form thorns related to the tool, easy to increase the roughness of the workpiece, while reducing the surface quality. In addition to tool factors, cutting environment and machining conditions, such as cutting quantity, cutting lubrication, etc., also have an impact on machining quality.

In the CNC machining process, the machining system is the overall commander of the whole cutting process. All CNC machining processes are carried out according to the system, so the precision and rigidity of the machining system are also one of the main factors affecting the machining quality.

There are two principles for processing arrangement:

Processing dispersion: with multiple processes to manufacture complex parts, broken down into multiple machines for processing.

Processing concentrated: composite machine functions, such as CNC turn-milling composite, laser ultrasonic vibration processing, grinding, five-axis linkage, etc.

All the work is done by one machine. According to the structural analysis of the workpiece, the use of different processing methods is also an important factor affecting the processing quality.
4. Materials

Machined materials are generally divided into plastics and metals. Each material has its own characteristics. In the process of processing according to the requirements of the workpiece and application to choose the right material is also very important. The consistency of the material should be better, otherwise, the quality of the same part may be different. In the case of material hardness being appropriate, try to ensure that the material does not deform. These are important prerequisites for assessing quality.

5. Inspection

After the machine has finished machining the workpiece, inspection is the last critical step before delivery to the customer. The inspection of machining generally needs to pay attention to two aspects:

1)Inspection procedure — The Inspection process includes the inspection process, as well as relevant regulations, systems, standards, etc. Generally speaking, the inspection process is the inspection in the production process and intervention mode, including the first inspection, self-inspection, mutual inspection, and full-time inspection.

2)Inspection method — refers to how to inspect and inspection standards. The inspection of machined parts is generally based on mechanical drawings, and the products are inspected by inspection instruments and measuring tools.

Traditional machining inspection and more modern machining inspection

Traditional machining testing instruments include a micrometer, dial indicator, vernier card, plane, ruler, level and various plug gauges, ring gauges, and so on. More modern machining testing instruments include an optical collimator, projector, 3D measuring instrument, theodolite, laser detector, and so on.

A qualified inspector of mechanical products must master the knowledge of inspection instruments and measuring tools related to the unit product.

In the process of CNC machining, to control the machining quality, we must understand and analyze the various influencing factors that the machining quality can not meet the requirements, and take effective technical measures to overcome them.

With the continuous improvement of modern production levels, the quality of machined products is increasingly demanding. Only by taking comprehensive measures for quality control, can we finally achieve the purpose of improving the service life of the equipment and improving the service life of equipment, and give consideration to economic benefits and energy saving in the process of processing. At the same time, to ensure the quality of machining, in order to promote the long-term stable development of the machining industry.

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